PARSONS, Tennessee (Isabelle Zehnder reporting) — Friday marked one month since Holly Bobo’s abduction from outside her Darden, Tennessee home – officials say someone, somewhere, knows something that could help bring her home.
A local, who wishes to remain anonymous for the safety of his own children, said, “The focus must be on finding Holly. Everything else is second. Once we find Holly then we can focus on the ‘who, the why, and the how’,”
Holly is the 20-year-old nursing student who attended classes at University of Tennessee Martin in Parsons about seven miles from her home. On April 13, Holly prepared for school like any other day. At around 7:30 a.m. and from inside their family home her brother, Clint Bobo, saw Holly walk into the woods with a man dressed in camouflage clothing. Clint believed it was Holly’s boyfriend.
Turkey hunting season was in full swing when Holly went missing, so seeing someone in full camo would not have raised a red flag, locals said. It wasn’t until Clint went outside and saw blood on the ground that he realized something was wrong and immediately called 911.
[Note: Some sources have requested to remain anonymous for the safety of themselves and their own children since Holly’s abductor is on the loose. It is the responsiblity of the news writer to respect their wishes and to protect their identity.]
Landscape of one small tight-knit community
It is clear that Holly is loved not only by her family, friends, and community, but by those who have gotten to know and care about her since she was abducted on April 13. It has also been made clear that those who know the Bobos love the Bobos and will do anything they can to help them.
According to locals, the landscape of their small, tight-knit community of Decatur County has changed. People must watch their children more closely and be on heightened awareness for their own personal safety.
Before Holly went missing you didn’t see pink ribbons on every mailbox or people wearing matching missing person’s T-shirts adorned with Holly’s picture that read “Foot soldiers for Holly,” or “Pray for Holly’s safe return.” You didn’t see missing person’s posters and pink bows on people’s cars – all reminders that nothing is or likely will ever be the same in their small and close-knit community.
“Our little community will probably never be the same,” an anonymous souce from Parsons said during a phone conversation Friday afternoon.
“We’ve got to stay focused on Holly. Our community will come together to determine how to be safe and how to remain safe. That can be anything from starting Neighborhood Watch programs to bringing education and information to the students and their families to enrolling students and women into self-defense classes,” the local said.
For a start, there is a free online resource with safety tips so people can arm themselves with knowledge on ways they can protect themselves and their families. Read: Big city crime comes to small tight-knit community; safety tips (links to safety tips written by former FBI profiler Clint Van Zandt are provided toward the end of the article.)
Public is a valuable, free resource, part of a team
The public is a valuable and free resource in finding missing persons. It is something that should never be overlooked and that should be valued. They can work as part of a team in assisting to help find missing persons and solve crimes.
Local, state, and federal agencies have the resources, training, equipment, and expertise to access information and solve crimes. They have conveyed that the public acts as their eyes and ears to provide them with the information they need to help solve cases.
“It’s not only their job, it is their responsibility,” one local said. “Police and prosecutors may even know who the perpetrator is in a case yet can’t make an arrest until they have sufficient evidence that will ensure arrest, prosecution, and conviction so that justice is served.”
“Law enforcement must get it right the first time as they have one chance at not only incarcerating the perpetrator, but also at convicting them so that they are no longer a threat to society,” she said.
Providing tips and how to make an anonymous tip
It was recently reported that the TBI is overwhelmed with tips and leads. The TBI said Friday they want “solid leads” that come from witnesses with first-hand knowledge, and also want tips that come in the form of rumor as those often turn into solid leads.
Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) Criminal Intelligence Unit, Jason Locke, said in an email Friday afternoon, “A tip or lead could be based on first-hand knowledge of an event or fact, as well as simply passing on a rumor.
“Obviously if someone has first-hand knowledge or information that can be corroborated, that could be considered a ‘solid lead’. However, rumors that are passed along to law enforcement are often times tracked back to their origin and substantiated as well, thus developing into a ‘solid lead’.
“On a case of this magnitude, we would encourage anyone with any information to pass it along to law enforcement,” he said.
There is someone, even several people, out there who know what happened to Holly. It’s time to come forward and tell what happened and stop the family’s ongoing nightmare.
“We know that there is that one clue that’s out there and that one person may have that one piece of information, so please call us,” Tennessee Bureau of Investigation spokesman, John Mehr, said in a live interview with Channel 4 News.
When crime occurs people know about it. The perpetrator or perpetrators know what he or she did.
Most importantly there are often others who are privy to what happened, or at least to the fact that an individual or individuals are in some way involved in the crime, but are too afraid to come forward with information.
For this reason Special Agent Locke said people can provide tips anonymously by:
- Calling 1-800-TBI-FIND, a person does not have to provide their name; or
- Visiting the www.tbi.tn.gov website. Once on the website click on “Wanted: Earn a Reward” then “Email TIPs to TBI”; again a person does not have to provide their name
Agencies that continue working on Holly’s case
One month after her abduction, law enforcement agencies are still actively working on Holly’s case, following up on hundreds of tips and leads they continue to receive daily.
TBI Special Agent Locke said in an email Friday afternoon that the following agencies continue conducting the investigation:
- Tennesse Bureau of Investigation (TBI)
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
with assistance from:
- Numerous local police departments
- Numerous local sheriffs’ departments
- Other state agencies
- Other federal agencies
Why is the family not saying anything?
Law enforcement has historically advised families against public discussion of their cases when they believe it’s in the best interest of the victim and the victim’s family.
It is very likely that the Bobos have been advised against talking to media or others about their missing daughter.
On May 12, WBBJ-TV News Anchor Will Nunley reported that a month after Holly went missing family members have declined to speak with him thus far and that he continues to confirm what he can, when he can.
Another local wishing to remain anonymous said Thursday morning, “If my child were missing I would take every measure possible to find my child.
“I would think I’d be screaming it from every mountain top.
“However, if an agency, especially the FBI or the TBI that are trained in working these cases told me that going public could harm my child, or the chances of bringing the person or persons responsible for their disappearance to justice and get them off the streets before they could harm someone else, I would do exactly what I was told.”
“I’m not naïve in thinking mistakes are never made by law enforcement. But if I were in the Bobo’s shoes and I had this many agencies, including the FBI working on my child’s case, I believe I’d listen to their advice.”
Why is law enforcement withholding some information?
People are asking why law enforcement is withholding information from the public, such as items located during the search and DNA results of blood evidence from outside Holly’s home. There are times when law enforcement feel it is prudent and in the best interest of the victim, their family, and the investigation to withhold certain pieces of information from the public and the media.
“What I have to question is why do some people believe they need to know this information? What are they going to be able to do with it anyway?” a local wishing to remain anonymous asked Thursday.
She said she’s curious about the DNA results like everyone else but that if she knew the results there’s nothing she could do with that information. If the officials aren’t releasing it, she said she believes it’s for good reason. “When you have the FBI, the TBI, and other agencies on the case, an entire community trying to help, and even other people who don’t even know the Bobos trying to help, then God help me that we should have faith in our officials trying to solve this case,” she said.
She added, “I think the officials want this case solved just a much as anyone else.”
Police said Wednesday that they don’t have that much to release and they’re holding back information that “only her [Holly’s] abductor would know.” TBI spokeswoman Kristin Helm said in an April 29 email, “When you are trying to solve an unsolved crime, the only person who knows more about it than law enforcement is the person responsible.”
“What investigators try to do is to find out through facts and evidence as much about the crime as possible,” Helm added. “Eventually, an investigation will lead to an interview of the subject.
“Through that interview, with knowledge of facts and evidence, an investigator will know if the subject is telling the truth and/or has first hand knowledge of the case.
“What an investigator doesn’t want to happen is for a subject to start telling what they know and saying they only know it because they heard it on TV or read it in the paper.
“A good investigator will want there to be information that only the subject and the investigator know when they sit down to talk. Many times, especially in cases where there’s not a lot of evidence, an interview of a witness or subject is very important to solving the crime,” Helm said.
Former FBI Profiler Clint Van Zandt added, “Law enforcement will sometimes withhold information in a case as a means of determining the validity of information provided by someone who suggests he/she has single source knowledge of the matter.
“An example could be a potential eye witness or a potential suspect in the case.”
West Valley City Police Lt. William Merritt said, “While some information in an investigation may be released to the public by an investigating agency, other information is not because it could hinder progress or reveal investigative techniques that are sensitive in nature.
“We also have to sometimes confirm the veracity of a statement made by a witness or suspect.”
Asked for his opinion as to why some information is not released to the public and media, Frank Park, Sheriff of Tooele County in Utah said, “The only information that the investigators would, or should, be willing to release is information that may be helpful furthering their investigation.
“Vehicle color, perpetrator description, anything in an abduction case that would help in the apprehension of the suspect.
“Information gathered from a crime scene may be handled differently due to the value of such evidence when using it in prosecution.
“Also, some items, particularly pictures, may be withheld from public display to protect the family of the victims.
“But, as I stated earlier, there is often some piece of evidence that will tie the suspect to the crime scene that only that one person would have knowledge of. That information is guarded closely by the investigations team to help with solidifying a conviction.”
He added, “Each and every case in different and the investigation of the case often determines what information is released.”
How much grieving can a family take?
Sometimes one has to wonder just how much a grieving family can take. It’s bad enough their daughter was abducted from her safe haven – her home. It’s even worse when the family is attacked online, their lives put under a microscope by people who know very little about them or the investigation.
They take little bits and pieces they read online and in the media and run with it, often not stopping to think that the information being disseminated may be incorrect, and with no regard to how the family will feel.
It’s easy to stand on the sidelines, far removed from the situation, drawing conclusions based from information put online by unconfirmed, unsubstantiated information that people post as fact.
What you read online is not always fact. Anyone can say anything. They can claim to be something they’re not. It’s important to research and be sure that information you’re reading is based on fact and that people who contact you are who they say they are and that you can verify their credentials.
“It is truly sad to know that people are trying to promote themselves and their ideals at the expense of others,” Bring Them Home’s Bee Herz said during a phone conversation Thursday night.
Reporting in Holly’s case and community support
There was an outpouring of community help and support during the critical time when Holly went missing, as well as a tremendous amount of law enforcement effort and presence on the scene immediately after Holly was abducted.
Not always seen in missing persons’ cases, but observed in Holly’s case, was a local news anchor willing to remain on the scene for weeks after Holly went missing.
Will Nunley stayed on the scene, tirelessly providing accurate and timely news updates to the public via Twitter.
Those updates were not only beneficial to the volunteer searchers and locals who depended on the information, but to media reporting from afar. It assisted in providing accurately what was happening, as it happened.
Timeline of events this past month:
Day 1 – April 13:
It was reported Holly’s abduction took place outside the Bobo family home around 7:30 a.m. when she was leaving for school
Sheriff Wyatt said two 911 calls were received around 7:30 a.m. the morning of April 13 reporting Holly’s abduction; one from her brother, one from an unidentified woman – the TBI has chosen not to release the name of the woman making the call and said they have no record it was a neighbor
Initial reports: Holly was dragged into the woods screaming following a home invasion
Holly’s cousin and country music star Whitney Duncan made an appeal to Holly’s safe return on Twitter
250 local community members volunteer to search for Holly
Decatur County Sheriff Roy Wyatt said some 150 local, state, and federal law enforcement agents were on the scene, including TBI’s Violent Crime Scenes Unit, the Highway Patrol, TBI agents, federal agents, neighboring sheriffs and others, on day 1
Volunteers searched on foot, on horseback, and on ATVs; some helped with kitchen duty, others shuttled searchers while some held down the fort at the command center
Asked why so many agents on day 1, Sheriff Wyatt said they were taking every precaution for “whatever it might be, then that’s what we’re trying to prepare for”
Search dogs and helicopters used on day one
- Community said they were in shock
- Holly’s pastor Don Franks, who said he’d known Holly all his life, said the community response was “exceptional”
Day 2 – April 14:
- Holly’s parents, Dana and Karen Bobo, hold press conference and make an emotional plea for the safe return of their daughter; law enforcement present, Karen nearly collapses
- Dana says he believes someone from their local community may have abducted Holly
- Woman working at local school with Karen said she heard Karen scream and cry uncontrollably upon hearing news that her daughter may have been abducted
- People start attacking Holly’s brother; their cousin Whitney Duncan comes to his defense on Twitter and Facebook asking that people not believe the speculation and that the family could not give further details as they did not want to hinder the investigation
Day 3 – April 15:
- Reports camo clothing and phone found in parked car said to be false
- Police announce they found Holly’s lunchbox near a creek
- Reports indicate Clint saw Holly being led into the woods, not dragged into the woods
- Investigators said Clint saw blood outside the family home and believed the man with Holly the morning she vanished was her boyfriend, not a stranger
- Investigators said they believe Holly feared for her life and complied with abductor’s demands
- Investigators said there was no home invasion
- Police said Clint and Holly’s boyfriend, Drew, were not suspects or persons of interest in Holly’s abduction
- Volunteers continue searching during storm and tornado warnings
- Sheriff estimates 1,500 people searching for Holly
- Holly’s cousin posted on Facebook: “Lord have mercy. I feel like I’m walking in a nightmare.”
Day 4 – April 16:
- Experts say finding lunchbox gives them direction
- Investigators agree Holly’s abductor likely someone from the community
- Search focused on 4-mile wide area about six miles from Holly’s home
- Officials plead for the same number of searchers
- Community raises $25,000 reward for safe return of Holly, $5,000 from local businessman
- 900 volunteer searchers present by late morning
- TBI announces search for Holly still rescue effort
- School buses shuttle volunteers, volunteers work to feed crowd
- Some stay at fairgrounds overnight
Day 5 – April 17:
- Initially volunteers asked to arrive at noon; police change their minds and ask them to arrive at the usual 7 a.m. meeting time
- Officials did not comment what prompted request for earlier start time
- Officials said they had a lot of ground to cover
- Community asked to think about anything unusual they may have seen the day Holly vanished
- 1,535 volunteers registered, estimated 2,000 actually searched
- TBI announces they’d received some 250 leads
- TBI announces other items belonging to Holly were found, do not disclose what they were
- TBI says no one ruled out as suspects, causing sea of online rumors
- TBI said small amounts of blood found outside Holly’s home were being tested
- News conference, no plans to scale down search effort
- Dive teams searching several waterways
- Officials request volunteers bring horses and 4-wheelers
- Officials said they had a new direction to search, did not disclose what the direction was
Day 6 – April 18:
- Whitney Duncan appears on Good Morning America with a tearful plea for Holly’s safe return
- TBI director Mark Gwyn said they were looking at every bit of evidence found
- TBI director announces he believes Holly and abductor are no longer on foot and that the abductor is familiar with the local area
- TBI director asks public, once again, to think back on the days surrounding Holly’s disappearance: Did they see anything different? He stressed possibility of someone excessively cleaning a vehicle, possibly an ATV – click here for list of what he said people should look for
- Online rumors and attacks against Holly’s brother grow; Whitney Tweeted that he is not a suspect and that he has been cleared for good reason
- TBI spokeswoman Kristin Helm says no one has been ruled out but the focus on developing suspect is outside immediate family and friends, and that Clint and Drew, Holly’s boyfriend, have been helpful and cooperative and that Clint was being treated as an eyewitness
- Helm says focus is developing person of interest who may have missed work, an appointment
- Governor Bill Haslam increased reward amount by $50,000; total reward now $75,000
- Dive teams search waterways using imaging technology to map bottoms of bodies of water near Holly’s home
- Investigators trying to ascertain which items found by searchers were linked to Holly
- Search centered on Natchez Trace State Park north of Holly’s home
- About 300 volunteer searchers on the ground
- TBI director says about 30 new leads, now about 280 leads to follow
- Lt. Wilbanks of Tennessee Highway Patrol (THP) says no arrests made, no dramatic evidence found, still an active search
Day 7 – April 19:
- THP announced trying new search tactics
- Heavy police presence witnessed
- Five roads closed near Holly’s home
- Law enforcement stopping everyone going in and out of the area for new information about Holly’s disappearance
- Investigators canvass Holly’s neighborhood, go door-to-door
- Continue imaging technology to map bottoms of bodies of water near Holly’s home
- Tennessee Sheriff’s Association adds $5,000, reward now $80,000
- TBI announces they have nearly 300 tips
- TBI director Gwyn addresses sea of online rumors and accusations saying, “We don’t deal with rumors. We stick to facts. As long as leads come in we will be here.”
- TBI spokeswoman Helm addresses rumor Holly’s disappearance was a hoax saying, “There is no possible way this was a hoax”
- TBI would not comment on Holly’s cell phone activity
- TBI spokeswoman Helm confirms still search and rescue effort
- Authorities call for more volunteers; about 300 people signed up by 10 a.m.
- TBI announces search continued with other local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies
- Searchers asked to come at 9 a.m. due to threat of tornadoes
Day 8 – April 20:
- TBI spokeswoman Helm says DNA results are back on blood found in driveway; results will not be released
- Tennessee State Trooper announces searchers will take next day off to rest while investigators regroup
- Decatur County Sheriff Roy Wyatt spends time talking with Bobo family; scheduled to share special message during candlelight and prayer vigil
- Community-wide prayer vigil scheduled at 7:30 p.m. at fairgrounds
- Nearly 3,000 people attend vigil
- Local news reporter Will Nunley tweeted sheriff’s message from family “Do whatever it takes to bring her home”
- Online attacks against family continue
- Dozens of Facebook pages created in Holly’s name; some not properly monitored and taken over by “trolls” posting hurtful comments causing more pain to the family
- Reports people create fake Facebook profiles and spread vicious rumors about Holly’s family
Day 9 – April 21:
- Kevin Bromley, spokesman for the Bobo family, speaks on HLN’s Nancy Grace Show
- Bromley criticized for lack of responses; he made it clear he was there to talk about Holly, her family, how strong they are, the community, and how involved they’d been in the search
- Law enforcement holding information close to the vest, Bromley respecting their wishes
Day 10- April 22:
- Authorities call for high number of volunteers to search through the weekend
- Welcome people on ATV and horses, as well as on foot
- Warn people to watch out for snakes and take precautions for ticks
- 603 volunteers registered by noon Friday
- Focus of weekend search closer to Bobo property including stretch of land known as “5 forks” up the road from Bobo property
- Searchers discuss finding ticks on their bodies
Day 11 – April 23:
- Law enforcement continue searching for Holly and processing leads
- Volunteer search groups out on foot, ATVs, and horseback
Day 12 – April 24:
- People from community gather for Easter sunrise service at 6:30 a.m., then search
- Small group of volunteers said to battle heat with hope, still determined
- Focus of Sunday’s search was on Holladay Road which connects Bobo’s home to Interstate 40
- Jason Greer with Henderson County Rescue Squad says looking for things like purse, bag, keys, jewelry, anything that could be thrown from a car
- Volunteer finds item officials say was a “significant” lead
- Officials confirm the item found belonged to Holly
- Searchers were asked to reassemble late in the day, something that had not happened before
- Less than 100 volunteer searchers registered to search Easter Sunday
- Holly’s mom wanted to come hug and thank everyone personally but it would have been too emotional
- Searchers continue picking ticks off their bodies after searching
Day 13 – April 25:
- Volunteer search called off due to severe and dangerous weather conditions
- Law enforcement officials continue pouring through leads
Day 14 – April 26:
- TBI Director Gwyn confirmed the item found Sunday was believed to belong to Holly; sent for analysis
- New lead said to bring renewed hope to Holly’s family
- Volunteer search called off due to severe, dangerous weather conditions
Day 15 – April 27:
- Volunteer search called off again due to severe and dangerous weather conditions
- Investigators continue to pour through leads
- TBI spokeswoman Helm says investigation is narrowing; they know more than they day when Holly first went missing; says investigation more focused, will continue to follow up on all leads
- While not confirmed, this could be the reason volunteer ground searches were called off
- TBI said searches will resume if and when they receive information that would lead them to search a certain area)
- National Day of Prayer – services around town planned to remember Holly in prayer
- Children release pink balloons for Holly from Parsons Elementary
- Decatur County Sheriff Roy Wyatt said he attended several prayer services; Holly remembered in everyone’s prayers; very emotional time for everyone as they all want to find Holly
- Sheriff Wyatt says of Holly’s family and community, “When they hurt, we hurt”
- Community asked again to search properties for clues; don’t touch them if you find them, call 1-800-TBI-FIND or sheriff at 731-852-3714
- Family spokesman Bromley says family remains hopeful Holly will be found unharmed
- Sheriff Wyatt confirmed many still believe Holly is alive, “We believe in God, we believe in prayer, we believe in miracles,” Decatur County resident, Joan Cagle said
- Dana and Karen Bobo issue statement to press thanking everyone for their help and pleading for Holly’s safe return
- Jason Everett Nickell, the registered “violent” sex offender who was arrested on April 18 on two counts of stalking that occurred on April 6 and 7, reportedly took a truck to a local body shop to have totaled sometime between the time Holly went missing on April 13 and April 18 when he was arrested; the manager of the shop confirmed via phone that the vehicle in question brought in by Nickell was a truck; she refused to comment further
- Locals concerned law enforcement is not enlisting in their help to search
- TBI spokeswoman admits they had to scale back but says investigation is ongoing; “You just can’t sustain that large an operation for a lengthy period of time”; says this remains an active “abduction” investigation with a local command post
- TBI spokeswoman Helm confirms specialized weekend search did not uncover any dramatic new details as hoped
- Helm says items found belonging to Holly have not “cracked the case”
- Jackson Sun reports Special Agent in Charge of TBI investigation in Jackson, John Mehr, asks for factual information, nothing that is rumor; asking for people who saw something out of the ordinary such as vehicle parked in area between 5 a.m. and 8:30 a.m. April 13
- Williamson County Sheriff Long and deputies joined the search; traveled to Parsons and traversed rugged terrain and covered almost nine miles on foot
- Helm confirms several people have been fingerprinted for elimination purposes; no one has been arrested that was fingerprinted, she said
- TBI spokeswoman Helm confirms TBI does not collect missing persons statistics in the state of Tennessee
- Locals become frustrated; out-of-towners also frustrated, having to cancel flights since search was called off by officials
- Helm responded saying TBI would let volunteers know if and when they need them to search; she said they would resume searches if they determine a specific area needs to be reexamined
- Helm says TBI will not confirm who made the second 911 call, but she was not aware of a neighbor calling 911
- Helm says again TBI will not confirm items found or results of DNA testing; police said they’re holding back on information that “only her [Holly’s] abductor would know”
- Pastor Don Franks writes note “No child is safe until we find Holly Bobo …”; his statement was scanned and put online
- As a result, Pastor Franks was wrongly, with no evidence of any wrongdoing, attacked online with accusations that he may have been involved in Holly’s disappearance (something that is happening more and more when people speak out in missing persons’ case) – these online attack are, sadly, closing many families down from talking and reaching out to the public for help
- One local comes to Pastor Franks’ defense, says she’s known him for 34 years, and that he just buried his own grandson [Brennan Dukes] yet is out there tirelessly searching for Holly
- Several questions sent to TBI spokeswoman Kristin Helm May 9 were unable to be answered; Helm said in an email: “I’m not going to be able to confirm any of the questions you sent me over the weekend at this time – as we aren’t releasing specific details of our investigation or anything about potential persons of interest. There are no volunteer search efforts scheduled at this time. We still have agents who are working leads daily.”
- On May 11 was asked if there were any future searches planned, and to discuss a search said to have taken place at a quarry over the weekend, Helm said, “We have nothing new to release to the media at this time. There are no future searches planned as of today and there was not a search at a quarry over the weekend.”
- On May 13 Jason Locke, Assistant Special Agent in Charge, Criminal Intelligence Unit for the TBI confirmed persons can leave anonymous tips by calling 1-800-TBI-FIND without providing their name, or they can visit the www.tbi.tn.com website and click on “Earn a Reward,” then click “Email TIPs to TBI” and provide the tip anonymously by not providing their name.
- Special Agent Locke also stated the TBI is accepting all tips people believe could be relevant to this case, including first-hand knowledge and rumors that may ultimately be tracked back to their origin and substantiated, possibly developing into a solid lead
- Blogtalk Radio Show to discuss case canceled for security reasons
- The issue of Holly’s mother, Karen Bobo, working with a psychic came up this week; it was said Karen had plans to work directly with a psychic and that those plans were canceled at the request of law enforcement officials; law enforcement has not confirmed if Karen had plans to work with a psychic, or if they requested she not do so – more on the use of psychics in missing persons cases forthcoming in a future article
Additional news and information:
Click here for details and links to articles on Holly’s abduction written by this National Missing Persons news writer.
Click on “SUBSCRIBE” button above to receive email notifications of this National Missing Persons news writer’s articles as they are published.
Sources: WSMV, icedjamb.com Week 1 wrap-up, icedjamb.com Week 2 wrap-up, icedjamb.com Week 3 wrap-up